Skin Care Glossary

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A

Acids

Often derived from fruit, they can exfoliate better than the scrubbiest of scrubs, and give you the clear, beaming skin of your dreams by removing dead skin cells, unclogging pores and increasing cell turnover. Look for AHAs (glycolic, lactic and citric acids), for sun-damaged or dry skin, BHAs (such as salicylic) for oilier skin and enlarged pores, and PHAs (polyhydroxy), which are milder, for sensitive skin.

B

Blackheads

Sebum (oil) and dead skin cells in the pores oxidise, giving the dark colour of blackheads. Environmental pollution, especially when living in city, can be the main cause. Exfoliate skin regularly to keep blackheads at bay.

C

Collagen

Collagen is a protein that's found in the connective tissue and bones. It gives skin strength and durability and makes it resistant to stretching. As we age, our collagen production decreases, causing thinning of the skin, which leads to lines and wrinkles. You can stimulate collagen production by eating foods rich in amino acids and opting for skincare products containing vitamin C.

D

Double Cleansing

Double cleansing is the skin pro's secret weapon and it's simple: using a two-step regime to remove makeup and grime from your face and neck in the evening. The first cleanse (using a micellar water or deep cleansing oil) is to melt your makeup (and/or SPF).. The job of the second cleanse is to make sure your skin is clean, balanced and comfortable

E

Exfoliate

Essential and regular exfoliating (with fruits acids or a scrub) is the sure-fire route to a brighter, smoother complexion. It giveS your skin a really deep clean and remove the layer of dead skin cells that block your pores.

F

Fermentation 

Fermenting formulas can boost them by breaking down the molecular structure of some ingredients, so they can be better absorbed into the skin. The process also creates lovely antioxidant-filled by-products

H

Hyaluronic Acid

Naturally-occurring in the body, hyaluronic acid is for hydrated, glowing skin. A single molecule of it can hold 1,000 times its weight in water. It keeps things cushioned and plumped but, like collagen, naturally depletes over time

I

Inflammation

Otherwise known as ‘dermatitis’. Itchy patches after using a new product? Flushed skin after a Vindaloo? Spots after a big weekend? Sun burn? These are all variations of inflammation and it can accelerate the ageing process

M

Microneedling Vs Microdermbrasion 

Microdermabrasion machines blasts miniscule crystals over skin to polish the surface. It causes mild 'trauma' (in return, encouraging fresh, lovely skin to appear), but best avoided if you have sensitive skin. Microneedling is where a roller covered in teeny-tiny needles is worked over the skin, creating minuscule punctures, forcing recovery mode to kick in. This also allows skincare to travel deeper into the skin

N

Natural, Organic or Vegan

Natural' means the ingredients aren't synthetic. 'Organic' means the stuff in it is organically farmed (something can be natural, but not organic). 'Vegan' means none of the ingredients are derived from animal products or by-products. Finally, 'cruelty-free' means there's been no animal testing in the process of production

P

Pre/ProBiotics

Microbiome' (or 'microflora') it's a layer of miniscule micro-organisms living invisibly all over us, protecting and balancing what's underneath. Probiotics help to strengthen the microbiome, prebiotics help to feed it

R

Retinol

Otherwise known as Vitamin A, retinol is one of the best ways to tackle fine lines and wrinkles, by promoting skin renewal and collagen production. It can also help with irregular pigmentation and texture.

S

Serums

Serums - containing lots of active and skin-saving ingredients - can give you all the hydration it needs, with thinner, layer-able formulas that reach deeper layers of the skin.

U

UVA/UVB Rays

UV radiation can penetrate and change the structure of skin cells and also cause the following: loss of skin elasticity; thinner, more translucent-looking skin; wrinkles and dry, rough, leathery skin; broken capillaries on the face; freckles; liver spots on the face, back of hands, arms, chest and upper back

V

Vitamins 

Use Vitamin E to defend and repair skin. Vitamin C (sometimes listed as ascorbic acid) is a potent power-house to brighten skin and boost collagen production. And Vitamin A is the active in retinol that that gets to work on lines and wrinkles.